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Normal-Weight Concrete
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Normal Weight Concrete Thermal Properties

EC2-1.2 and EC4-1.2 provide the following models incorporating temperature effects for the thermal properties of normal-weight concrete.

The thermal strain (expansion) of concrete εc , θ can be determined by:
For siliceous aggregates:
For calcareous aggregates:
where θc is the concrete temperature (°C).
The variation of the thermal elongation, with temperature, is shown in Figure 1.

The specific heat of dry concrete cc , θ [in J/kg •K] (i.e. moisture content by weight u = 0%) can be determined by:
For siliceous and calcareous aggregates:

The variation of the specific heat with temperature is shown in Figure 2.

Where the moisture content u is not considered explicitly in analysis, the specific heat of concrete may be modelled by peak value at 115°C as given below:

The value of u = 10.0% may occur for hollow sections filled with concrete. For other moisture contents, linear interpolation between the above given values is acceptable. The peak values of specific heat are shown in Figure 2.

The variation of density of concrete ρ c , θ with temperature is influenced by free water loss and is defined as follows:

where ρc , 20 is concrete density at ambient temperature.
The variation of the ratio of ρc , θ to ρc , 20 with respect to temperature is shown in Figure 3.

The thermal conductivity of concrete λc [in W/m •K] can be determined between the lower and upper limit values as follows:

The variation of the upper limit and lower limit of thermal conductivity with temperature is shown in Figure 4.

Material Behavior
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